For a couple of thousand years the old water ‘Mills’ have been able to grind oats. wheat, or anything the local population required to survive. They have withstood all that nature could impose on their structure and use. Modern life saw the use of these sturdy buildings disappear and allow these useful buildings fall into disrepair till only a husk of the original building was left. There are areas that have started to rebuild some of the more useful water mills being brought into use once more but mainly as a visitor and semi useful local attraction.
The above is from a .gov site showing in simplistic terms how the # Generating # side of a wind turbine is built and assembled for carbon free power generation. There is a controller in operation to be able to start the turbine into rotation mode and this starts from approximately 8 to 16 MPH (13 to 26 KPH). The controller will also prevent the turbine from operating when wind speed reaches 55 MPH (89 KPH) to prevent damage to the unit. The gear box shown in the blue sectioned box converts the speed to suitable levels to create power generation. Remove the propeller and couple to a water wheel which sits at ground level and the cost of maintenance drops in proportion,in simplistic terms
MarSealSer has been involved with most industries over the past 5 decades and involvement has been international from marine to chemical and power generation. During that time many improvements in materials and design have occurred that have improved manufacturing processes and material applications to improve environmental conditions and pollution reductions to atmosphere, rivers and oceans. There is still a long way to go but there is a dilemma no government will face for the future and that is a burgeoning world population. At check in 2015 world population was 7.2 Billion in 2018 the population has almost reached 7.6 Billion. This will become unsustainable within a few years as it will be almost impossible to feed the whole world even to bare essentials for life. There should be a world-wide effort to plant trees to absorb the CO² in our atmosphere, don’t chop, PLANT 1000’s to keep pace with population growth.
With water as the power source there is no CO² problems as would happen with any fossil fuel. Where drought conditions exist then the sea water drive fluid can be diverted to a desalination process to have irrigation water that can be pumped to even a desert region to give life to crops or animals. Sea water can be from a tower or undersea tidal system and used to rotate a water-turbine the onshore system is easy to maintain and probably less that 25% of the maintenance cost of a wind turbine. Wind turbines rely on wind at certain speeds, water turbine is flow conditions controlled by the operator.